Journal of Political Economy & Economic History

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ABSTRACTS

No.210-219 No.200-209 No.190-199 No.180-189 No.172-179
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No.218 (Vol. LII, No.2) July 2010 PARK, Hyun"The Application and the Effects of eThe Temporary Fund Control Lawf by the Chosun Government-General"

This paper is based on empirical analysis of the application and effects of the Temporary Fund Control Law implemented by the Chosun Government-General from Oct. 1937 to the end of 1940.
After the beginning of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937, the Government- General began approving selected private investment plans by employing the Temporary Fund Control Law, in order to concentrate funds and materials in industries that had political priority. These were in particular import substitution industries and those industries named in the eProductive Capacity Expansion Plan.f The Government-General itself supervised the progress of the approved businesses, in order to prevent the misuse of funds and facilities.
However, implementation of the 'Material Mobilization Planf throughout the Japanese Yen Bloc restricted the Government-General's capacity to issue these approvals, because of the difficulty of acquiring materials. Instead of aggressively seeking private investment, therefore, the Government-General was forced to become more conservative, basing its approvals on the candidate companyfs technical skills and potential for success.
The approval results show that the funds were indeed concentrated in high-priority areas. An analysis of eThe Survey on the Business Results of Companies in Chosunf likewise shows that under the enforcement of the Fund Control Law, borrowing by those companies classified as leading industries increased more than the borrowing of those outside that classification.
However, total bank loan data does not reveal the same concentration of funds, because only a small portion of total bank loans required approval under the Law. Borrowing by companies not classified as leading industries also increased even after the Law went into effect, and furthermore, there was an increase in the proportion of companies that were not subject to the regulations required for approval, and an increase in their capital as well.
In sum, the Temporary Fund Control Law was enforced to control the funds, but its effects were restricted by the emerging circumstances.

HIRASAWA, Teruo"The Development of Japan's Electric Lamp Export Industry and Voluntary Export Restraints during the 1950s and '60s: The Case of the Christmas-tree Lamp Industry"

This paper examines the development of the Christmas-tree-lamp industry, which was one of the export industries that contributed significantly to Japan's economic development during the 1950s and 60s. It focuses primarily on three periods: (1) pre-1958; (2) 1962-64; and (3) post-1967.
The majority of Japanese-made Christmas-tree lamps were exported to the US during the 1950s. These exports exceeded American domestic production levels by the mid-1950s, and Japan adopted voluntary export restraints (VER) in 1958 to prevent a flood of exports and the trade friction that would result. The VERs were also intended to regulate excessive competition in Japan and thereby to bring stability to Japanese manufacturers of the product.
Because of inadequacies in the functioning of the VER system, however, conflict erupted between exporters and manufacturers in 1962-3. The Japanese Electric Lamp Industry Association and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry proposed reforms to the VER based on self-regulation by the industry, but the proposals were not accepted and the reforms were never implemented.
Meanwhile, exports of Christmas-tree lamps to the US from developing countries (South Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong) increased rapidly, and Japan accordingly lifted the VERs in 1967 in order to be able to compete. The Japanese Christmas-tree Lamp Trade Association also developed plans to enhance Japanese competitiveness and stabilize the manufacturing sector, but these never took concrete form. As a result, Japan's Christmas-tree lamps lost most of their market share in the US, and the Christmas-tree-lamp industry ceased to be a significant part of Japan's economic growth by the beginning of the 1970s.


KAWANO,Yuko"Hilferding's Countercyclical Policy and the Enquete-Commission in the Mid-1920s"

R. Hilferding (1877-1941), leading 1920s political economist in the German Social Democratic Party, strove hard amidst the unstable conservative political conditions of the time to overcome the economic depression of 1925/26, and to implement a thoroughgoing survey of the drastic changes that had taken place in the postwar economy. His efforts have not yet been given detailed examination, especially with regard to his countercyclical policies. The Great Depression of 1929 is the only period to have received attention, and he is usually criticized for the lack of a countercyclical response at this time.
Hilferding was in fact interested in business-cycle theories from early on. He analyzed the causes of the 1925/26 depression, particularly the gaps in the industrial sector and technological backwardness, and proposed monetary easing first and foremost. While envisaging the future establishment of a welfare state and further democratic reform of organized capitalism, he urged spending, rather than just tax reduction, as a positive countercyclical measure. He therefore sought the construction of railways, electricity, export credit and housing, with due consideration for fiscal and monetary stability. He also argued for an international economic policy in heavy industry, most-favored-nation commercial treaties, and the establishment of cartel control authorities. He later confirmed the effects on economic recovery of these stimulus measures and predicted that economic organization of this kind would continue to be influential in economic policy. It is thus evident that he by no means neglected countercyclical measures as a matter of principle, but rather, under the appropriate circumstances, urged monetary ease, spending policies, etc., in order to stimulate the economy and promote employment.
At the same time, he sought to base economic policy on comprehensive empirical research. To this end, he proposed the establishment of the Enquete-Commission to administer surveys, and played a decisive role in its formation and its administration: he developed the working plan, the revised bill, and the organization chart, laid out the areas for investigations, and participated in the executive board. In the subcommittees and working groups, he himself led the inquiries, frequently as chairman, and clarified many key areas for discussion, including central bank stabilization policies, corporate publicity needs, the advantages and disadvantages of cartels, the demerits of foreign bond restriction and so forth, most of which were adopted into the reports. In his view, central bank policy was a particularly important factor in countercyclical policy, and cartels were essential elements in the organizing of the economy. His active countercyclical policies in the mid-1920s and his exploration of the changing structure of post-WWI capitalism through the Enquete-Commission, represented significant developments in economic thinking. The next question for our analysis should be to consider how, as Minister of Finance, he later coped with quite different problems in the context of the Great Depression.


No.217 (Vol. LV, No.1) Apr 2010 OGASAWARA "Social Work and Female Labor Supply of Agricultural Households in Interwar Japan"

In modern Japan, half of the total labor force belonged to the agricultural sector. Moreover, it contributed to industrial development since it was closely connected with the nonagricultural sector. Female workers accounted for half of the total workers in the agricultural sector and for 60 percent of the female workforce. It had been proposed that a woman allocated her time not only for housework but also for farming and sideline occupations in order to increase the efficiency of resource allocation of household economy. Recent investigation has demonstrated that a womanfs farming hours continued to increase with agricultural integration, which is a feature of agrarian labor supply in modern Japan. Married women in farming households decreased their domestic labor hours and increased their farming hours in interwar Japan. However, nothing has been speculated regarding how women could reduce the number of hours spent on housekeeping and what were the means of reducing housework. This paper examines the impact of childcare centers on female labor supply of rural households in interwar Japan.
I use the following two approaches to estimate the impact of childcare on female labor supply. First, by comparing the number of children receiving childcare in Kyoto obtained through national census, I find that almost every household with an infant in the area, where a nursery was established, left their children with the institution. Moreover, historical documents suggest that their demand originated from the incentives of securing steady labor supply in order to deal with household vulnerability to climate-related risks, and of receiving good care in terms of sanitation and education at a low price. Second, using longitudinal data on agricultural households from Nōka Keizai Chōsabo (Agricultural Household Survey), I estimate the female labor supply function and test the basic unitary household model, considering external child rearing. These results indicate that women whose children receive childcare are more likely to solve the trade-off between nursing and working, and work outside.
The key finding in this paper is that childcare significantly eases womenfs burden of nursing and assures them to pursue farming and sideline occupations. This result shows that the outsourced care in social work is an important evidence to explain the long-term increase of female labor supply and the efficient resource allocation of household economy by women. Another implication of the result corrects the common view in the history of social welfare, which assumes that childcare centers is not conformable in terms of nursing and life of farm.

ISHIZAKA,Ayako"From Regional Surplus Nation to Global Capital Exporter: Germany as an Article XIV Member of the IMF (1952-1961)"
This paper clarifies the relationship between Germany's capital exports and the revival of its domestic capital market, by examining how Germany's role as a capital exporter changed as a result of the liberalization of trade and foreign exchange controls. The focus is on Germany as an Article XIV member country of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
When Germany joined the IMF in 1952, the country had surpluses against the OEEC region and bilateral-agreement countries, and deficits against the dollar zone. Therefore, Germany's goal in promoting the liberalization of trade and foreign exchange controls was to eliminate regional gaps in restrictive and discriminatory measures. As of 1956, its import liberalization rates viz. both the OEEC region and the dollar zone exceeded 90%, and bilateral agreements were being eliminated altogether. Germany's trade and foreign exchange liberalization were thus almost complete.
What is peculiar in Germany's case is that the country's cumulative current account surpluses were deemed problematic. The latter 1950s saw harsh international criticism of Germany's accumulation of gold and dollar reserves, and the country was pressed to export capital as a gsurplus nation's responsibilityh (richesse oblige). The United States and the IMF were particularly strong in urging capital exports. Germany itself was reluctant to be regarded as a capital-exporting country like the United States but promoted capital exports nonetheless in the face of the international pressure. The requests for German capital exports gradually shifted from short- and medium-term to long-term. The country assisted developing countries through the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), both making loans and releasing the Deutsche Mark (DM) portion (18%) of Germany's capital contribution to the organization. These actions coincided with the revival of the country's domestic capital market at the end of the 1950s and contributed to the global liquidity supply through the issuance of DM-denominated IBRD bonds and the involvement of export industries and commercial banks in IBRD activities. The gold and dollar reserves that Germany accumulated were put back into circulation through such capital exports and thereby became a source of liquidity.


SHIMA "The Chiba Electricity Service District Transfer Case: The Transformation of the 1931 Revised Electricity Business Act Regime"

This article examines a case in which an electricity service district in Chiba Prefecture was transferred from Tokyo Electric Light (Co.) to Keisei Electric Railway (Co.) (hereafter referred to as the gChiba Caseh). It focuses on two points: first, the principal features of the 1931 Revised Electricity Business Act (hereafter referred to as gThe Revised Acth); and second, changes in the relationship between the Revised Act and State management of electric power. The research is based mainly on the diary of OOWADA Teiji, who was a Ministry of Communications (MOC) bureaucrat.
The agreement to transfer the electricity service district from Tokyo Electric Light to Keisei Electric Railway was concluded in 1934, but in 1936, the Ministry of Communications decided not to approve it. The 1931 Revised Act had originally established electricity service district monopolies, as well as systems for approving electric bills, granting permission for mergers and transfers, and so on. Under the Revised Act, public regulation over the monopolies was strengthened. Five major electric power companies imposed self-regulation by organizing the Electric Power League (cartel).
The driving force behind the Revised Act was HIRASAWA Kaname, an MOC bureaucrat who was specialized in electricity administration. The evolving regime reflected his ideas. He insisted on electricity service district monopolies and on the system for approving the electric bill (the introduction of the fully distributed cost method). He also respected the spirit of enterprise, however. His supervision of the electric power industry was therefore not oppressive but rather encouraged self-regulation by the companies.
Meanwhile, OOWADA, who had opposed HIRASAWA, played an important role in establishing State management of electric power (1938). OOWADA insisted that the electric power industry should not be managed by private enterprise but should be controlled directly by the state, to correspond with the move to total war and to revive farming areas. Similar views gained influence in the Ministry of Communications in the reforming climate of the times. Finally, TANOMOGI Keikichi, who had long sought state management of electric power, was appointed Minister of Communications. He removed HIRASAWA as chief of the electricity bureau and appointed OOWADA in his place. OOWADA and others dismissed HIRASAWA's policy as anti-reform: as a result, the Chiba transfer agreement was rejected. The Revised Act regime had aimed to balance an enterprising spirit with the public interest, but bureaucrats like OOWADA criticized it as insufficient for establishing state control of electricity. Some previous studies have argued that the Revised Act regime paved the way for State management by tightening public regulations. However, the above case reveals the discontinuity between electricity management under the Revised Act and State management. The rejection of the Chiba Case was a sign of the changes taking place in electricity administration at that time, and thus suggests a universal problem in the relationship between the spirit of enterprise and the public interest.


No.216 (Vol. LII, No.2) Jan 2010 Yukiteru Ohguri "Establishment and Development of the Land Repurchasing Practice in the Meiji era"

There was a practice in the Meiji era (1868-1912), which saw land sellers repurchase lands from their buyers after refunding money, and it was systemized as gland repurchasingh under the civil law. Though a lot of studies on pawn broking that closely resembles this repurchasing practice have been done, little attention has been paid to this practice of repurchasing. The preceding studies established the following doctrine and no further studies have been carried on since; gLand repurchasing was exploited to obtain foreclosed guarantees by usurers. After the prohibition of foreclosure of mortgaged or pawned land, they exploited another guarantee-requiring practice in which debtors deposited the land certificates with creditors as guarantee. After the abolition of the land certificate system, the system of land repurchasing was established and widely prevailed, and farm lands were thus plundered during the depression between the Taisho and Showa eras (1912-1945).h Having doubts about this doctrine, the author contemplates the conditions and history under which the practice of repurchasing was established with case studies of landowners (The Kato family who owned 60ha-land in Tochigi prefecture and the Kawasaki family who owned 55ha-land in Yamaguchi prefecture, and so on).
The land repurchasing practice established in the Meiji era consisted of two motives; one was formed to rely on the buyersf leniency and the other was to exploit high interest out of the sellers. In the former case, the debtors who were forced to sell irredeemable pawned or mortgaged lands, or the sellers who sold lands for cash had the senses of inheriting family estates that had been formed in the early modern age, so@they asked the buyers to resell land to them for honor. This kind of repurchasing in which main buyers were the landowners coming from prosperous farmers was highly possible when the guarantee foreclosing intensified in the late 10s of the Meiji era (mid-1880s), but started to decline from the 20s of the Meiji era (1887-96) on, as the significance of leniency faded and the buyersf desires for private land ownership strengthened. In the latter case, regardless of leniency, the creditors exploited high interest with refundable deals. This kind of repurchasing remained alive even after the decline of the lenient repurchasing, in response to the debtors who wanted to inherit family estates. The land repurchasing practice had a basis to be established after the approval of purchases and sales of land in the 5th year of the Meiji era (1872), and had been established as the alternative guarantee to pawn broking or mortgaging, or as the second attempt of these guarantees. From the start of this practice, the sellers booked the buyers to resell lands by giving the signed deeds, not depositing the land certificates as guarantee.

KITAURA,Takashi "Foreign Bonds and the Depreciation Policies of Electric Power Companies in Interwar Japan"
This paper examines how the accounting contract clause in foreign bonds that were issued by Japanese electric power companies between 1923 and 1931 influenced the depreciation policies of those companies.
Prior research on the depreciation policy of the Toho Electric Power Company analyzed the company's non-consolidated financial statements, which did not include the company's subsidiaries. As a result, it highlighted the fact that the Toho Electric Power Company's management increased the depreciation of its fixed assets voluntarily, beginning in May, 1930. This paper, however, reinvestigates the company's depreciation policy based on an analysis of its consolidated financial statements, and finds that Toho began depreciating its fixed assets according to contract in November, 1925, at the latest, and that further depreciation was undertaken voluntarily by the management after May, 1934.
In the case of Tokyo Electric Power Company, management decreased the depreciation to such an extent that it constituted a breach of contract, whereupon the underwriting company revised its accounting methods based on reports from professional accountants. Furthermore, a "depreciation problem" arose in the relationship between contractual and real depreciation funds after Japan went off the gold standard in December, 1931. These facts show that the contractual clauses concerning depreciation had a significant impact on Tokyo Electric's depreciation policy. Great Consolidated Electric Power Company, Nippon Electric Power Company, and Shin'etsu Electric Power Company, too, treated the issuing of foreign bonds as an opportunity to institute continuous depreciation of their fixed assets.
As the Tokyo Electric case shows, the underwriting companies monitored Japanese electric power companies' implementation of the contracts stipulating depreciation of fixed assets. If the power company broke the rule, as in the case of the Tokyo Electric Power Company, underwriters revised their accounting approach. Their assessments were based on reports submitted to them by accounting professionals who continuously monitored the power companies' depreciation practices.
I therefore conclude that corporate governance by debenture holders worked properly in the interwar period with regard to the depreciation policies of Japanese electric power companies, through the contract clauses in the depreciation policies and through the monitoring undertaken by the underwriting companies.


KATO, Fusao"East Elbian Landowners in the Late Weimar Republic"
The Dohna family of East Prussia, whose countship appears in German records dating back to 1127, possessed an entailed estate (Fideikommiss) of almost 20,000 hectares at the end of the 19th century. This essay investigates the Dohna family's fiscal reconstruction from the late Weimar Republic to the early Nazi years, with particular reference to the East Elbian Relief policies (Osthilfe) launched in 1930 for large-scale landowners. As W. C. McNeil points out, small farms of under fifty hectares made a profit between 1928 and 1930, but large estates were losing vast sums.
This essay focuses in particular on the effect of the 1920 law "Zwangsauflösungsverordnung," which sought to abolish entailed estates in Prussia, on the Dohna family. The analysis is based on primary materials in the Berlin-Dahlem Archive (Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preußischer Kulturbesitz). The essay ends with some critical suggestions for Japanese research into Prussian agricultural history.


No.215 (Vol. LII, No.1) Oct 2010 OKADA, Tomohiro "Rebuilding Local Societies and the Social Structure of Damages caused by Earthquake Disasters: from the Perspective of Intraregional Economic Circulation"


The objective of this paper is to show the prospects and issues on rebuilding affected local societies based on the concept of intraregional economic circulation after elucidating the social structure of damages caused by the Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

To do this, 1) this paper criticizes the discourse that limits the scope of disaster-hit areas to the Tohoku region by@showing the heterogeneity and regionality of the social structure of damages in the aftermath of the earthquake and tsunami; 2) from the context of capitalist development from the mid-war period that saw the implementation of Tohoku Shinko Jigyo (Tohoku Development Project) towards the contemporary phase of economic globalization, the paper analyzes@the socioeconomic factors within the disaster-hit areas and the political economic factors behind the policy conflicts concerning local revitalization; and 3) by examining the policy issues concerning the restoration of disaster-hit local societies and the reestablishment of victimsf lives through the case of a city that was seriously damaged by tsunami,@Kesennuma City in Miyagi Prefecture,@this paper shows the importance in restoring the intraregional reinvestment capability and intraregional economic circulation of the affected local societies.



FUYUKI, Katsuhito "Agricultural Recovery Efforts in Tsunami-Damaged Areas: A Case Study of Miyagi Prefecture"
The Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 caused extensive damage to agriculture in the Tohoku region. Miyagi Prefecture was especially devastated by the massive tsunami that flooded 10% of its cultivated acreage. Furthermore, rural communities themselves were damaged much as the land was, and have yet to recover adequately.
The Miyagi Prefecture Basic Disaster Reconstruction Policy includes in its "Basic Concepts" what it calls "Not just Restoration," [but also] "Restructuring." It explains the concept as follows: gWhile coordinating land usage, the prefectural government will make plans to improve agricultural output through agricultural land integration, large scaling of operations and transitions of crops planted. In addition, the agri-business for the gsixth industryh will be proactively developed for the revitalization and reconstruction of a competitive agricultural industry.h (Miyagi Prefecture translation)
The key words here are "integrationh, glarge scal[e],h and gbusinessh. In line with the Prefectural plan, some private enterprises in Sendai City have already joined the reconstruction effort in cooperation with large-scale agricultural corporations. By contrast, however, many medium-and small family farmers and their lands have not yet recovered.
The government should henceforth not pursue only the single model of "large-scale agribusiness through integration of farmlands," but should also closely examine the grave situation of small-scale family farms and seek to address their needs.


KASE,Kazutoshi ""Welfare to Work": Post-tsunami Reconstruction Policies for Coastal Fisheries"
The homes and workplaces of coastal fishermen are necessarily located very near the coastline and were accordingly hit especially hard by the March, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and resultant tsunami. Given the scale of the damage and fatalities, it was immediately clear that coastal fishermen in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures would be unable to resume their fishery activities without special public aid. Governmental relief and recovery plans being slow to materialize, however, many fishermen lost hope and the will to rebuild. This in turn posed the threat that local economies, based as they had been on the fisheries industry, would go into decline. Young people would have to leave the area, and the middle-aged and the elderly, who cannot readily enter new fields of work, would remain, living on welfare benefits.
It was under these circumstances that the government adopted a relief plan that was much more powerful and effective than those following previous disasters had been. Especially important was the change in the policy principle that fishermen's private assets should not be subsidized. Concretely, the government approved a plan to offer subsidies that would enable individual fishermen to replace their boats and related equipment at one-ninth or one-sixth the regular price.
Encouraged by these new policies, most coastal fishermen once again became motivated to rebuild. Many people have criticized the government's relief plan, but it is a reasonable approach because it encourages coastal fishermen to work actively for the reconstruction of their businesses. The government naturally did not adopt these policies out of generosity or kindness. Rather, it agreed to subsidies of this kind because it feared that the majority of those remaining in the coastal region, where there were no good employment alternatives to the fisheries industry, would become permanently dependent on welfare benefits. The government's policy can therefore be understood as an example of welfare state reorganization, or in other words, as a policy of encouraging a shift "from welfare to work."


SHIMIZU,Shuji "The Fukushima Nuclear Disaster and the Collapse of Special-Interest Financing"

The disaster at the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) will without doubt bring extensive damage to the stricken area for a long time to come. Local communities have been fragmented and conflicts have erupted among victims over what stance to take toward radioactive contamination issues. No one can predict whether, as a result of the accident, Japan will completely do away with nuclear power or not. However, one significant factor will be the extent to which the special-interest system for NPP sites remains intact. The building of NPPs stimulates regional economies only temporarily and to a limited degree, while the structure of the regional economy changes drastically and becomes unsustainable without new capital investment in the plant. Following the Fukushima accident, the scope of disaster-prevention arrangements will expand significantly and the number of local governments involved in them will triple. It is highly likely that regions and local governments that do not benefit directly from NPP employment and tax revenues will also have a strong say in the location and operation of NPPs. We therefore predict that there will be a marked reductionin the effectiveness of the special-interest system.

No.214 (Vol. LI, No.4) July 2009 YANAGISAWA, Osamu "Cartels in the Economic System of German National Socialism"


The article analyzes the development of economic control over the organization and price-agreement of industrial cartels by the German government under National Socialism. The cartels, which were established by business men in various fields of the economy during the Weimar Republic, were not abolished by the National Socialists, and cartel agreements were as common as before the Nazi era. In the cartel organization the leadership principle characteristic of National Socialism did not prevail, but the industrial cartels were controlled and used by the Nazi government as a means of controlling the war economy. The first cartel decree issued on 15 July 1933 changed the cartel statute of 1923 and strengthened the power of the Ministry of Economics over cartels. The second statute enacted on the same date introduced compulsory cartelization by the state. This article investigates at first the control of cartels before the Second World War by the Ministry of Economics in collaboration with the National Trade Association of Industry on the one hand, and by the National Price Commissioner on the other. Then it analyzes the how grationalizationh policy and the function of the price agreement of the cartels was modified and used as a means of price control by the state. Many cartels were abolished and reorganized by the gGroupsh of the industry National Trade Association. They became the gLenkungskartellh. In spite of these changes the profit-making principle of the cartels was not abandoned, but preserved firmly under the National Socialist regime.

TANAKA, Hikaru "Postal Savings and Mass Saving behavior in the Early 20th Century: A Case Study of Mishima City in Shizuoka Prefecture"

The Japanese savings rate rose to around 10 percent in the early 20th century. The growth of individual savings supported and stabilized this high savings rate. This paper examines how and why the individual savings grew in modern Japan.
The Japanese Postal Savings Bank was the first nation-wide saving bank for ordinary peoplefs small savings, and became generally popular at the beginning of 20th century as the savings rate rose. This paper therefore focuses on the spread of the Postal Saving Bankfs individual deposit accounts. Previous studies have revealed that central government policy promoting individual savings affected deposits in the Postal Savings Bank. But government policy was not the only factor which induced people to save. Various local organizations and their actions also widely affected ordinary peoplefs saving behaviors.
The experience of Mishima City in Shizuoka Prefecture provides a good example of how saving behavior spread in local society. In Mishima, new modern organizations such as the local post office, elementary schools and local government, were well aware of the central government policy promoting savings, and additionally they had influence in the local community.
To give one example, Mishima elementary school cooperated with Mishima post office to promote making small savings to parents through school children. As the government implemented systems to promote postal savings, local community leaders tried to utilize those systems. Additionally, these local leaders did not just accept this policy; to a certain extent they could also give advice to government about it.
It was not only the modern but also the older parts of society that joined in the promotion of savings. In Mishima, local small savings organizations such as mujin (pre-modern mutual financing communities) and local residentsf unions were promoted by local government and local post offices. Although there were a variety of purposes for savings, these savings movements lead the growth of small deposits in local modern banks, similar to postal savings. As the postal savings system developed in local communities, pre-modern collective savings were integrated to the modern system and the new generation was trained in the concept of saving. This happened all over Japan, not only in Mishima.
In the early 20th century, Japanese local society was in many respects being reconstructed. Savings behavior and the promotion of individual saving was one typical trend in this process. This movement affected the Japanese national savings rate, and to a certain extent supported capital accumulation for Japanese modernization.


SHIOTANI, Masachika "The Export of Russian Cotton Textiles and the Commercial Networks of Asian Merchants in the First Half of the 19th Century"

After 18th century, Russia promoted trade with the Asian region. Persia, Central Asia and China were Russiafs main trade partners. But, in practice, it was not Russian but local Asian merchants promoted the trade between Russia and Asia. Armenian merchants mediated Russian trade with Persia, Bukharan merchantswith Central Asia, and Shanxi merchants with China. It was no accident that these merchants mediated the trade between Russia and Asia. Armenian merchants controlled the Persian, Bukharan merchants the Central Asian, and Shanxi merchants the Chinese commercial sphere. These Asian merchants assumed responsibilities for the distribution of commodities and the financial system. Russia utilized the commercial networks of neighboring regions in carrying out trade with Asia. Asian merchants used mules and camels as means of transportation and organized caravans in the cycle of a year. They made use of the natural environment in Eurasia in promoting trade between Russia and Asia.

The 19th century was the period during which Russian society moved away from the natural environment. In other words, it was a period of transition of power sources from natural energy and animal power to fossil fuels. If we divide the 19th century in Russia into two parts, in the first half of 19th century, steam engines were introduced in production, power sources transited from natural energy and animal power to fossil fuels, and mass production of cotton textiles became possible. In the second half of the 19th century, steam engines were introduced in the field of distribution (railroads and shipping), and again power sources transited from natural energy and animal power to fossil fuels, and mass and high speed transportation became possible. It is not difficult to imagine that this transformation radically changed Russian trade with Asia and had a great impact on Asian merchantsf commercial networks. In this article, I focus on the export of Russian cotton textiles and examine the distribution of textiles between Russia and Asia in the first half of the 19th century. I will examine the transformation in distribution in the second half of 19th century in a later article.



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No.213 (Vol. LI, No.2) January 2009 YOTSUYA, Eriko, "Lloyd Georgefs Idea of eeCompulsory Self-Helpff in the Formation Process of the 1911 National Insurance Act in Britain: toward a Bridge between eeSelf-Helpff and Social Insurance"


This paper explores Lloyd Georgefs idea of gcompulsory self-helph in the process of formation of the British national health insurance system, in which he took the initiative. Focusing on both the continuities and discontinuities in that process shows that this system inherited the British tradition of gself-helph and its characteristics, while it contrasted with and was in tension with the tradition of self-help, and of gcollective self-helph in particular.
This system was envisaged as a result of the limitations of collective self-help. But it was impossible to ignore the traditional friendly societies and trade unions which had offered sickness and other benefits for many years. Additionally, there was a cost advantage to using existing organizations. Therefore, Lloyd George proposed a system administered by approved societies such as the friendly societies and the trade unions. In this way, this system inherited the tradition of self-help and adopted a form that compelled workers to join self-help schemes, which meant providing for their own futures. He also insisted that the whole community should be compelled to join and the whole country should help to overcome the limitations of collective self-help, by adopting a tripartite system of contributions from workers, employers and the state.
Moreover, he emphasized that self-help organizations would be extended and strengthened by this system. On this occasion, the state was to interfere in the self-government of such organizations to a certain extent. State intervention was important to secure the stability of self-help by preserving self-help organizations in the foregoing system. On the other hand, approved societies which were to operate the system were given a certain level of self-government and autonomy. In this respect, the self-respect of the members of such organizations was secured.
Meanwhile, he permitted the commercial insurance companies to become approved societies because he recognized their power to attract insured persons and collect contributions. In other words, he placed more emphasis on including as many workers as possible in self-help and less on entrusting only self-governing organizations such as the friendly societies with the administration of this system.
In summary, Lloyd George sought to create a stronger national system in the tension between the tradition of self-help in Britain and the new state compulsion, while he faced and made use of this tradition and the characteristics of various existing organizations.


MORI, Ryoji, "Promotional Measures for the Black Forest Clock Industry in Württemberg, Germany: Introduction of American-style Interchangeable Part Manufacturing or Protection of Medium and Small-sized Firms? "

This paper examines the efforts of the Württembergisch goverment to introduce American-style interchangeable part manufacturing as a measure to support the Black Forest clock industry.
The Black Forest clock industry was exposed to competition with the American clock industry as early as the late 1840s, and as a countermeasure the Württembergisch governmentfs Central Agency for Industry and Commerce (Die Zentralstelle für Gewerbe und Handel) promoted the adoption of American-style interchangeable part technology by establishing a parts factory. The Agency was working for the protection of the medium and small-sized firms that were preponderant in Württemberg and for the Agency the adoption of this technology was not to convert the clockmakers to mere assemblers, but instead was intended to make their preservation possible through cutting production costs.
But the Agencyfs project collapsed because it was unrealistic in terms of both European market trends and the mentality and labor institutions of the clockmakers. The factory for interchangeable part manufacturing established with the support of the Agency did not adopt the American system with its many quality problems, but instead introduced technology from the French clock industry that was acknowledged as a producer of diverse high quality products. Additionally, the Black Forest clockmakers refused to purchase the interchangeable parts because they wanted to maintain the independence of their businesses.


MAEDA, Kiyotaka, "Periodical Transactions in Commodity Exchanges during the Later Meiji Era: A Case Study of Salt Transactions on the Tokyo Commodity Exchange."

This paper aims to elucidate the function of commodity exchanges in index price formation on the spot market during the later Meiji era in Japan. In particular, this paper focuses the function of periodical salt transactions (trading in futures) from October, 1894 to May, 1905 on the Tokyo Commodity Exchange.
Historical studies of commodity or stock exchanges in Japan have tended to focus on the Dojima (Osaka) Rice Exchange in the Tokugawa period and historians have paid little attention to commodity exchanges from the Meiji era onward. However, the beginning of transactions in commodities other than rice on the exchanges after the enactment of the Exchange Law in 1893 was one of the important characteristics of 1890s when the base formation of the modern market progressed. Accordingly, hoping to contribute to a better understanding of the process by which the commodity exchange system was established as a general trading system with the rise of capitalism in Japan, I consider periodical transactions on the exchange around the early twentieth century. This paper shows that index price formation function of the Tokyo Commodity Exchange had two limitations. Firstly, periodical transaction price functioned only as an index price of Shinsaida-soruto (low-grade salt made in the Seto Inland Sea of Japan) price. In other words, periodical transaction price did not function as an index price of any other salt. Secondly, the function of the Tokyo Commodity Exchange was diachronically unstable especially after around 1900 when salt consumers began to buy more imported than domestic salt.
The Tokyo Commodity Exchange was one of the largest commodity exchanges and the center of salt periodical transactions in Japan. We can say therefore, during the later Meiji era, if a trader in the market had used periodical transactions on the commodity exchange to hedge against the risk of price changes, the trader could not have been able to hedge in many cases. Even if traders succeeded in hedging in the short term, they could not use the commodity exchange to hedge stably in the long term.


No.212 (Vol. LI, No.2) January 2009 KOJIMA, Yohei, "The Significance of Public Works in Rural Areas in the Great Depression"


This paper analyzes the significance of public works in rural areas in the Great Depression by examining work opportunities in village forests.
Research to date on the significance of public works has been based on estimations and incomplete data, and has failed to examine public works project wage allocation in the context of village politics.
This paper examines the case of Zakouji Village, Shimoina District, Nagano Prefecture, and clarifies the following three points.
First, the village forests of the Shimoina District functioned as a safety net, and many unemployed villagers could earn some money by working in the forests. In Zakouji village, however, forestry resources were so exhausted that the village authorities decided to prohibit people from entering them. Second, those who lost the chance to work in the forest formed a movement against the village authorities. In public works from 1932 to 1934, those who participated in the movement had more chance of being employed. Third, as a result, the public works had a function to suppress social unrest in Zakouji Village, but the wages paid to workers in public works were very low. The destitute needed to enter the forest to survive and the village authorities had no choice but to permit them to do so, with the result that Zakouji villagefs forest was more and more devastated. While this paper concludes that public works were partly able to suppress social unrest, it is not adequate to evaluate the economic effect of public works overall.


SAITO, Yoshifumi, "Industrial Paternalism in the French Third Republic"

French social reform at the end of the 19th century is characterized not only by increasing state intervention in labor and social policies, but by a wide range of private company initiatives in welfare services. The object of this article is to examine the significance of welfare policy in the industrial world, termed industrial paternalism under the French Third Republic.
First of all, factors which pushed employers to promote industrial paternalism were as follows: firstly, shortage of labor caused by underpopulation and industrial location; secondly, the unstable nature of workersf lives in the market-economic system; and thirdly, increasing state intervention by means of bureaucratic organization and social legislation.
In the case of Société de Pont-à-Mousson, a leading iron foundry in Lorraine, a strike in 1905 brought about the development of industrial paternalism. Through discourse and a company welfare system, management sought to establish labor-management solidarity by ensuring the subsistence of employees. In this way, the capital-labor conciliation policy, which contributed to a fixed labor force, took on a mixture of solidarism theory and patronage theory.
From the aspect of social reform, industrial paternalism was closely related to patronage theory advocated by the school of Le Play. In particular, on the occasion of the International Exposition in 1889, Emile Cheyssonfs ideas on patronage gave a practical role in social management to private companiesf welfare systems in the context of the social economy. The concept of social economy at that time embraced various systems designed to ensure the survival of workers by private initiatives. Additionally, the Musée social founded in 1894 concretized social economy, through which patronage and solidarism shared an approach based on mutualism in the matter of social organization.
Therefore, the social recognition of industrial paternalism owed much to patronage theory. But, in decline at the end of the 19th century, patronage had to share with solidarism both in viewpoint and practice in social reform to preserve its significance under the Third Republic. Social economy, which joined patronage and solidarism, thus proved to be one of the conceptual bases of the French social security system in the 20th century.


NISHIKAWA, Teru, "Macroeconomic Policy Coordination about the UKfs Move to IMF Article 8 Status, 1952-61: Through analysis of IMF Article 14 Consultation"

This paper, through analysis of the IMF Article 14 Consultation process, aims to clarify how the IMF tried to adjust the UKfs macroeconomic policies to get it move to IMF Article 8 status. There are many studies about sterling convertibility, which was inevitable so that the international monetary system could be restored to its function in the postwar world. However, previous studies have paid little attention to the activity of the IMF. As a result, the influence of the gBretton Woods system,h the principles of which were exchange stability, trade liberalization, and multilateral system of payments, on the operations of the major countriesf macroeconomic policies has not been sufficiently examined. By focusing on the guniversalh framework of macroeconomic policy coordination and reexamining the role of the IMF, this paper tries to present a new perspective on the history of the international monetary system in 1950s, the commonly held image of which has been constructed by focusing only major countriesf activities.
The consultation with the UK was conducted from 1952 to 1959, and the UKfs transition to Article 8 status was realized in February 1961. In this period, the IMF actively participated in the process of removing the UKfs exchange restrictions, based on international institutional logic which attaches more importance to guniversal interestsh (e.g. exchange stabilization and establishment of the multilateral system of payments) than the UKfs private interests. In the first half of the 1950s, the IMF positively pursued the establishment of the multilateral payments system, through international monetary cooperation. On the one hand, it required the US, a large creditor country, to modify its commercial policy, and on the other, it called for the UK to make sterling convertible by making use of the Fundfs resources. At this stage, the IMF did not firmly request the UK to make efforts to check inflation and relax exchange restrictions. However, the IMF changed its strategy in the mid-1950s when it faced the UKfs economic vulnerabilities in contrast to the developing international economic situation in which the dollar shortage was gradually reduced. Based on the Monetary Approach, it did insist that UK should endeavor to attain monetary stability. Then, once monetary stability was achieved, the IMF immediately launched the removal of the dollar discrimination maintained by UK.
This paper suggests that the supranational framework of macroeconomic policy coordination which adjusted the major countriesf strategies to the design of the IMF was behind the stability and establishment of the international monetary system in 1950s.


KIKUCHI, Tomohiro, "An gindustrial-workers-typeh Collective Farm during Agricultural Collectivization in East Germany: Erfurt City in Thuringia, Southern East Germany, 1952-1960"

This article focuses on the political action gIndustriearbeiter, aufs Land,h or gindustrial workers, to the country,h which was implemented at almost the same time as agricultural collectivization (1952-1960). This political action was a response to agricultural crises, such as the increase in abandoned farmland, and simultaneously was expected by the Socialist United Party (SED) to rationalize and mechanize socialist agriculture.
Previous studies of collectivization mostly ignore this action and refer to it only as a total failure that resulted in a decline in agricultural production, or as evidence showing the endurance of what are termed gtraditional agro-social milieus.h The impact of this action on agriculture has not been sufficiently analyzed.
This paper therefore will clarify the actual impact of this action through an analysis of archive documents from a collective farm (LPG). This action was comprehensively implemented in this LPG that it was transformed into what should be termed an gindustrial-workers-type.h farm from our analysis we demonstrate the following findings. First, the action should be viewed from not only gparty-stateh perspective, but in terms of multilayered power relations. Second, the action became particularly significant in the southern region of East Germany and it was this significance that led to its failure. Third, the suburb condition enabled local politicians to send industrial workers to the LPG, but it was this condition that led to the failure of the action.


No.211 (Vol. LIII, No.3) April 2011 MORI, Takahito, "The Development of Unemployment Insurance in the gSocial Cityh: A Case Study of the Second German Empire."


This article aims at elucidating the character of the gpublicness of urban communitiesh at the turn of the century with a case study on the development of unemployment insurance in the German gsocial city.h The gsocial cityh is determined here as the phase in which the social security of the central government had not yet been completely formed and municipalities were obliged to develop their own social policies.
It was the municipalization of public services since the 1870s that brought the gsocial cityh into being in Germany. It contributed to the bureaucratization of municipalities, with the result that the senior municipal officials took control of the gpublicness of urban communities.h In addition, the Social Democrats, who had been increasing their seats in communal councils since the 1890s, gained the bridgehead to exert an influence on the gpublicness of urban communities.h Although their presence was limited, the bourgeois regarded it as a great threat and formulated the gsocial tasks of municipalitiesh as the political norm for integrating the urban society in opposition to the Social Democrats. This norm permitted municipal governments to take interventional policies and directed the bourgeoisf attention to the protection of workers with unemployment insurance.
German municipalities had developed since the 1890s their own unemployment insurance, especially the Genter System, with which the municipalities paid subsidies to the trade unions that provided their out-of-work members with unemployment benefits. This made unemployment insurance a leading topic in a nationwide discussion about social policies. Despite the efforts of municipalities, however, the central and state governments gave up introducing the national unemployment insurance and shifted their responsibility onto municipalities.
Therefore, the third German Communal Conference in 1911 adopted the gstatement on the problem of unemployment insuranceh which demanded that the central government should introduce the national unemployment insurance instead of the Genter System. Nevertheless, the position of municipalities was not monolithic. The majority of the Communal Conference was against the system because the Free Trade Union under the Social Democratic Party enjoyed the most benefit of it, whereas those who approved the system considered the Social Democrats as reliable partners to relieve the unemployed. Thus, the attitude of those approving the system corresponded well with the intention of the Free Trade Union to win social recognition. This made it possible for unemployment insurance to establish itself as an important component of the gpublicness of urban communities.h


BABA, Satoshi, "gDaseinsvorsorgeh and gSozialpolitische@Stadtpolitikh with Special Reference to the German Public Transportation at the Turn of the 20th Century"

The concept gDaseinsvorsorgeh was first suggested in 1938 by the German jurist Ernst Forsthoff. It signifies the duty and responsibility that the public administration, and municipal government in particular, accepted to provide the resources necessary for urban life, such as energy supply and public transportation, to all urban residents in the course of 19 th century industrialization and urbanization. As Daseinsvorsorge is independent of poverty and applied also to the rich, it is distinguished from fsocial assistancef. First of all, the municipal government was responsible for Daseinsvorsorge, and continued to hold the sphere of its activity in the course of centralization. Meanwhile, the concept fSozialpolitische Stadtpolitike was suggested in 2002 by the German sociologist Jürgen Krämer. In contrast with eurban social policyf, such as poor relief, Sozialpolitische Stadtpolitik provides all urban residents with public services, utilities and opportunities for direct communication for the purpose of the integration of urban society. Among various facilities, Krämer values hospitals, nursing homes and open spaces, and views such measures as the historical origin of the esocial citye program in contemporary Germany.
Using these two overlapping concepts, this paper aims to clarify the implications of fare-paying urban public services in terms of social policy. The specific case study is public transportation at the turn of the 20th century in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, when the municipalization and electrification of tramway was implemented, and the municipal government planned to reduce fares and to open up the service to new passengers. In particular the introduction of the weekly-ticket for working people was significant. At first the municipal government intended, for technical and financial reasons, to introduce a weekly-ticket with which working people could take the tram only once a day. A special city council committee made a counterproposal of a weekly-ticket which was applicable to a wider range of the urban population and permitted them to take the tram twice a day, a proposal which the municipal government accepted in the end. Though fare-paying, this policy aimed at facilitating tramway use, and could be considered as typical example of Daseinsvorsorge. It signifies that such municipal government activities continued to play a role in integrating urban society in the historical development from the esocial cityf via the esocial statef and back to the fsocial citye again.


IMAI, Takako, "Between Integration and Autonomy: From the Experiences of a Social Enterprise, the Wise Group, in the UK"

This paper aims to explore the tension between integration and autonomy around the state and voluntary associations in civil society, based on empirical research on the subset of an emerging actor, the esocial enterprisef, in contemporary British society. eSocial enterprisef is a relatively new concept, drawing on the increasing interest in non-conventional entrepreneurial dynamics addressing present challenges. The social enterprise is not conventional because it acts across three traditional sectors: the public sector, the private sector and the voluntary sector.
Since 1997, the Labour government paved the way for social enterprises to play a significant role in delivering public services. In the contest of the welfare mix, the government saw the social enterprise as a vital actor in renovating public services. The focus of their public service reforms was on tackling the problems of esocial exclusionf, as well as on seeking more cost-effective ways to deliver services. One of the culminations of such reforms was the introduction of the Flexible New Deal under the Brown administration. Here, private and voluntary actors were expected to take more responsibility for delivering employment programs to those who were out of the labour market. Nonetheless, the growing focus on social enterprises by the government had, arguably, accelerated the tension mentioned above.
To examine this tension, this paper applies a case study of an organisation called the Wise Group, one of the largest and most successful social enterprises in the UK. The Wise Group has delivered employment programmes in communities for more than 25 years, originally through an Intermediate Labour Market model. While this paper shows some evidence of integration, it also demonstrates their autonomous activities. The paper concludes that, although tension certainly exists in the quasi-market of public services, the social enterprise has still shown its potential to lay a deep foundation for autonomous civil society through its ability to discover and resolve community problems, and to build social capital in the community.


FUKUSHI, Masahiro, "Urban Communities as Space: Conceptions of Social Quality and Social Precarity"

This paper examines the publicness of urban communities through the conception of social quality, as explored by some European social policy researchers since the 1990s in relation to the phenomenon of social precarity. To date, publicness has been explored primarily through the Habermasian conception of the term. However, it has become difficult to overcome this issue if, merely elaborating on Habermasfs way of speech, we only emphasize arguments without regard to material conditions. In this paper, criticism of Habermas depends primarily on the conception of social recognition of Axel Honneth and the spatial conception of Lefebvre. Lefebvre in particular suggests that there is some possibility of raising separation and conflict in the interrelation among representation of space, spaces of representation and spatial practices, articulating their interconnectedness. His contention was to analyze critically the life space that modernity has generated from the viewpoint of everyday life. This paper is focused on articulating the subjective and objective characters of society to take up various issues of urban communities as life spaces, premised on Lefebvrefs concern. If urban issues were a result of the structural nature of society, a key challenge would be to raise the quality of society. Social quality is defined as the extent to which citizens are able to participate in the social and economic life of their communities under conditions which enhance their wellbeing and individual potential. The conception of social quality thinks of this quality from the viewpoint of the ability of people to participate in society. On the other hand, social precarity refers to conditions of exclusion, grounded in the idea that social quality gets increasingly unstable and people do not partake in society. The most important thing is that we understand social precarity as a conflicting conception relating social quality on the whole, that is to say, grasp it as degradation of social quality relating subjective, objective and normative conditions of the social to the whole. Urban problems such as homelessness, unemployment and local economic decline are increasingly serious. Social precarity is a severe issue produced as the result of the breakdown of the conditions of social structure.

MESHITSUKA, Yosuke, "Industrial Standardization and the Role of Governmental Research Institutes in 1950s Japan"

The primary objective of this paper is to clarify the role of governmental research institutes in the industrial policy execution process in 1950s Japan. Numerous attempts have been made by scholars to examine the efficacy of industrial policies and laws in impacting Japanese economic development after World War II. In the last few decades, Calder and Hashimoto have highlighted diversity among government agencies as policymakers. However, what seems to be lacking is a study of diversity among internal subdivisions in those agencies. We are concerned with the role of specialists in the policy process in Japanese governments, and especially, we focus on governmental research institutes and the scientists who worked for those institutes. Since governmental research institutes were a bigger part of national innovation system in this period than they are today, this lack of study of those institutes is troubling. The secondary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the hidden relationship between industrial standardization and technological development.
First, we examine the restructuring of governmental research institutes after World War II. Some officers of the Allied Forces General Headquarters and the Ministry of Commerce succeeded in establishing the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) as a centralized governance structure for governmental research institutes. The establishment of AIST and introduction of competitive research funding resulted in an increased number of research projects relating to industrial and technological policies. Second, we show that some technological developments were required through the process of establishing Japanese Industrial Standards (JISs). In the late 1950s, technological problems emerged in industrial standardization. JISs were required for features which had to date been evaluated through subjective testing. But without precise measurements it was impossible to establish objective and clear standards for those features. The Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) decided to mobilize governmental research institutes to solve this problem, and to make grants for research relating to industrial standardization.
Finally, we analyze the process of standardization of noise and looseness of ball bearings in the late 1950s. When users of ball bearings in Japan required official standards for these characteristics, there were no sufficently precise measurements, not only in Japan, but globally. The Government Mechanical Laboratory and Japanese bearing makers undertook collaborative research efforts and solved this problem.
These results imply that governmental research institutes achieved an important role in the postwar policy process in Japan even if it was not as policy maker.


No.210 (Vol. LIII, No.2) January 2011
MATSUKA, Jin, "The Influence of the Separation of Prussian Poland from Germany on Social and Ethnic Problems (1918-1923)"

This paper analyzes the influence of the separation of Prussian Poland from Germany on the economic situation of the border area between Germany and Poland in the first years of Polish Independence. It describes the period from the end of the First World War to August 1923, when the Polish government banned the German minority movement Deutschtumsbund in Bydgoszcz/Bromberg. This research is mainly based on materials from the National Archive in Poznań, but also uses German archival resources and daily newspapers in both languages published in Poznań.
Those two Polish western provinces(Wielkopolska/Großpolen and Pommerellen/ Pomorze) were integrated into Russian and Austrian Poland through the Wielkopolska Uprising (Powstanie Wiekopolskie)and the Versailles Treaty. However in the process of the uprising many Poles and Germans were involved in violent incidents.
Taking this political background into consideration, this paper examines the economic crisis caused by this separation in the border area, where ethnical minorities such as Mazurian, Kashub and Silesian people lived. They were treated by German authorities as groups having a strong German cultural influence and an integral part of the German nation, but were also considered by the Polish national movement as an indispensable part of Polish nation due to their common linguistic, cultural (or religious among Silesian and Kashub) characteristics.
I term these eethnically intermediate groupsf between Germans and Poles. This economic crisis was in particular caused by, firstly, the strong devaluation of the Polish currency—the marka polska—in relation to the German mark. Secondly, and as a result, the price of crops in former Prussian Poland became much lower than in Germany (until 1922). The different velocities of postwar inflation of these two currencies, divided railway networks and difficult border control were among the factors that increased smuggling of goods and foreign currency. I also describe how such chaotic circumstances harmed the intensive agriculture of former Prussian Poland, stimulating ethnic antagonism. Further, the separation of citizenship between the two nations living in this border area deprived German farmers of their land through agricultural reform.
Deutschtumsbund accused the government of violation of international treaties protecting minority rights in the International Court of Justice in the Hague. The Polish government lost the case and Polish society became more hostile towards the German minority. Finally, this economic crisis was used as justification for the Polish assimilation policy of the eethnically intermediate groupsf and the nationalistic radicalization of German minority.


CHOI, Jaedong, "Fire, Arson and Fire Insurance in Rural Russia circa 1900 with Particular Reference to Moscow Province"

From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, there was a ten-fold increase in fire incidents in rural Russia. In particular, from the beginning of the 20th century until right before WWI there was a two- to three-fold increase in fire incidents in comparison to the end of the 19th century. Arson was the cause of some 30 percent of these fires, but in some regions and provinces over 50 percent were caused by arson.
Fires did not necessarily lead to bankruptcy for Russian peasants, but were an opportunity to receive a significant payment of insurance money that enabled them to reset their economic situation. Peasants in Moscow province actively purchased coverage in the higher zemstvo additional insurance program, the zemstvo voluntary insurance program and from fire insurance companies. As a result in 1904, more than 40 percent of those who purchased zemstvo compulsory insurance coverage received 70 to 80 percent of the registered value of the insured asset, the value of which was frequently overestimated two or three times. 50 percent of policy holders of zemstvo compulsory insurance received payouts in 1909, while more than 60 percent did so in 1914.
Farmers in Russia did not consider it a shame or a crime to cause arson, if it was not harmful to others. They saw arson as a quicker and more secure way to resolve the economic difficulties of rural management than bringing issues to the courts, which took into consideration various interests, or by bringing issues forward for an administrative procedure. It was not only quicker and easier to receive a large insurance payout for fire and arson, but insurance payouts also resolved the problems more quickly. In addition, there were very few cases where a suspect of arson was tried and punished as a criminal.
During WWI and the Russian Revolution in 1917, there was a sharp decrease in the number of fire incidents. The primary reason for this was that the economic gain from insurance payouts decreased remarkably due to the sudden rise of prices for building materials and of worker pay. For this reason, in contrast to the 1905 Revolution, farmers seeking to restart their businesses during the revolutionary period beginning in 1917 were extremely careful about fire and arson.


KODAMA, Shuhei, "The Direct Investment of Japanese Cement Industry in Manchuria"

The purpose of this article is to examine the direct investment of Japanese cement companies in Manchuria.
In second half of the 1920s, the Japanese cement industry was experiencing cutthroat competition, and many companies were in financial difficulties. As a result the companies in that industry established a cartel, the eCement Rengokaif, and placed price, production and sales under its control.
But in spite of this effort, the situation continued to deteriorate. Oddly, the scale of investment in plant and equipment far and away surpassed the scale of demand. The reason for this was the cartelfs method of control. Originally, cement companies competed by building additional plant. Further, control was based firstly on production capacity. Secondly, the cartel divided the Japanese market into eight blocks. If a company didnft have a plant in an important block, for example Chukyo and Kyushu, this put the company at a disadvantage. Consequently, each company competed with others to build additional plant in order to expand their profit. As a result, the cartelfs control measures brought about new and serious competition in the cement industry by expansion in plant.
The 1931 eMajor Industries Control Lawf prohibited plant expansion to ease this competition. But, on the other hand, this law deprived cement companies of their means of competition. This time Japanese cement companies turned their attention to the Manchurian market. In Manchuria, cement demand was expected to increase greatly to equip infrastructure, and the eMajor Industries Control Lawf did not apply to Manchuria. As a result, companies competed through expansion in plant in Manchuria.


FUJIKI, Takeyasu, "U.S. Trade Policy and Chinafs Accession to the WTO: What Was the Clinton Administrationfs Engagement Policy with China?"

By the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of Cold War, the Clinton administration reviewed its China policy and introduced a new framework, that of Comprehensive Engagement. Under the Comprehensive Engagement framework the US government negotiated continuously and simultaneously three important issues, the military, the economy, and human rights, in order to integrate China into international society. But Republican conservative and Democratic liberal factions of Congress opposed and delayed the Clinton administrationfs China policy. The former expressed concern over the rise of China in East Asia, while the latter noted human rights violations in China. Moreover, various interest groups intervened in the policy process with their demands. They criticized the Clintonfs Comprehensive Engagement for its appeasing stance, the lack of strategic and long term consideration, and its mainly economic focus. As a result, Clintonfs Comprehensive Engagement was frequently criticized as being ad hoc and inconsistent, because US China policy was distorted by the diffusion of political issues and the strong influence of domestic politics after the Cold War.
This paper analyzes the policy process of the US-China agreement on Chinafs WTO accession, which is the most important result of Comprehensive Engagement, and a bill granting permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) to China, which is a precondition of the former. This process is examined from two points of view. One is the external aspect: negotiations with the Chinese government. The US tried to promote democracy and a market economy in China through accession negotiations with China. Another is the internal aspect: intervention of economic interests in the policy process and bargaining between the administration and Congress. In domestic politics, the Clinton administration needed to bundle the various interests of Congress into one integrated policy: Comprehensive Engagement. The House and Senate, Republican controlled since 1995, were able to restrain implementation of the Clinton administrationfs policies.
In conclusion, this paper shows the consistency of the Clinton administrationfs Comprehensive Engagement and that there was an agreement between the Clinton administration and Republican leaders.


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